Evaluación de la vulnerabilidad social a los peligros naturales en Nova Friburgo, Región Montañosa de Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

Claudia Paola Cardozo, Antônio Miguel Vieira Monteiro

Resumen


Brasil enfrenta un escenario complejo de peligros naturales, como resultado directo de su tamaño, diversidad y heterogeneidad tanto social como natural. En 2011, se produjeron deslizamientos masivos provocados por lluvias extremas que causaron el denominado “Megadesastre” en la región montañosa de Rio de Janeiro. Este trabajo describe el desarrollo de un Índice de Vulnerabilidad Social a nivel de distrito censal, utilizando el método SoVI. También examina el valor potencial del índice para explicar el impacto de los deslizamientos de 2011 en la población de Nova Friburgo. El Análisis de Componentes Principales (ACP) revela que seis factores explican el 73.6% de la varianza de los datos. El análisis de patrones espaciales sugiere que aproximadamente el 84% del área es clasificada con nivel moderado de vulnerabilidad social. Los valores más altos se registran donde la densidad de población es alta y además se desarrollan las principales actividades económicas. El conocimiento resultante proporciona a la comunidad local, al gobierno y a las organizaciones civiles una base para comprender la geografía y los impulsores de la vulnerabilidad social, que pueden aprovecharse para lograr una preparación y respuesta efectivas para enfrentar futuros peligros naturales y también para promover sociedades resilientes a los desastres.

Palabras clave


Vulnerabilidad Social, Peligros Naturales, Análisis de Componentes Principales, Brasil

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Referencias


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